The Glassed Over Project

Stories beyond the pane: A tribute to women’s independent spirit and identity

In partnership with Markham Museum, Glasstronomy Studios has created an art glass exhibit to coincide with International Women’s Day on March 8, 2019. Using reclaimed window frames and a variety of art glass techniques, Glasstronomy Studios, its membership, and student volunteers have collaborated on a tribute to a diverse group of women who share an independent spirit and a disregard for social barriers.

Challenge your perception of how we lived in the past, exist in the present, and project for our collective future. Whether celebrating International Women’s Day, or looking for perspective, visit the Markham Museum from March 2 to 31, 2019.

Markham Museum is located at:

9350 Markham Road (Highway 48)
Markham, Ontario
L3P 3J3

Hours:

Tuesday to Friday: 12 pm to 5 pm | Saturday and Sunday: 10 am to 5 pm

March 2 to March 10, 2019 — The exhibit is on display in the South Hall of Markham Museum’s main building.

March 3, 2019 — Opening reception in the South Hall, from 1 to 4 pm. If you are interested in attending, kindly email events@glasstronomystudios.ca by Saturday, March 2, 2019, with the names and number of people who will be attending.

March 11 to March 31, 2019 — The exhibit relocates to the Strickler House, steps away from Markham Museum’s main building.


The Women

Through their adventures, contributions to advocacy efforts, arts and entertainment, conservation, education, literature, media, sport, and STEM research, these women have impacted our past and present. Selected from a long list of nominees researched and submitted by members, their friends and colleagues, there were two criteria that pared down the list. The first is that they either originated or came to the Markham-Toronto region. The second is that they did something interesting, either one-time or life long, that sparked awe, joy, laughter, and lively debate. While they all accomplished different things, the circumstances in which they lived their lives is not dissimilar to our own.

Note: In order to keep the information consistent, post-nominal designations and titles have not been used in this text. No disrespect is intended.


The Exhibit

THE GLASSED OVER PROJECT
Window opens to reveal artist messages
Collaborative panel created by participants, Glasstronomy Studios, 2019

Each letter on the front panel of the window was created by a different person. The letters were fused in Glasstronomy Studios’ kilns and soldered together using traditional stained glass methods. Use the latch to open the window. Inside you will find a fused glass panel with messages from the participants.

Use the latch to open the window. Inside you will find a fused glass panel with messages from the participants.

Concept and design: Elizabeth Beecham and Melanie Kidd
Artists: Mary Arcand, Elizabeth Beecham, Marty Brent, Ethel Clarke, Valerie Clarke, Lella Dal Ferro, Millean Kung, Allison Li, Mia Louie, Ona McDonald, Vanessa Orr, Susanna Ng, Valerie Singh, Ingrid Tanner, Lucia Thon

197 MAIN ST.
A tribute to Kathleen Gormley McKay
Collaborative panel created by participants, Glasstronomy Studios, 2019

When Kathleen McKay met Fred Varley, she formed a life-long friendship with the artist and an appreciation for Canadian modern art. When Varley became ill, Kathleen and her husband invited him to live with them. They eventually moved into her family home, the Salem-Eckhardt house on Unionville’s historic Main Street, and converted the basement into an art studio for Varley. Kathleen later sold the house to the Town of Markham. Upon her death, the remainder of her Estate, including an extensive art collection, was bequeathed to the Town.

This fused glass piece depicts the Salem-Eckhardt house, now known as the McKay Art Centre, at 197 Main St.

Concept and design: Melanie Kidd
Kiln technician: Melanie Kidd
Artists: Cheryl Broschell, Lella Dal Ferro, Melanie Kidd (Lead), Susanna Ng, Lucia Thon
References: Kathleen McKay

43°51′44″N 79°25′21″W
A tribute to Jessie Donalda Bell Dunlap and Helen Sawyer Hogg
Collaborative panel created by participants, Glasstronomy Studios, 2019

The David Dunlap Observatory (DDO) would not have been built without the generosity of Jessie Dunlap. Her late husband was an amateur astronomer who crossed paths with Clarence Chant. Jessie was approached by Chant who lobbied to have the DDO built as a monument to her husband. Jessie agreed and helped oversee its construction.

Helen Sawyer Hogg was an astronomer who pioneered research into globular clusters and variable stars. She was the first female president of several astronomical organizations and a notable woman of science at a time when many universities would not award scientific degrees to women. Working at the DDO and the University of Toronto, Helen also brought astronomy to the masses in her Toronto Star column, With the Stars, and actively encouraged women to pursue careers in science.

This triptych panel features a night sky. The constellations of Pisces, Gemini, and Leo are placed above Jessie Dunlap, the DDO, and Helen Sawyer Hogg. The constellations represent the birth signs of the individuals and observatory that impacted their lives.

Concept and design: Elizabeth Beecham
Kiln technician: Melanie Kidd
Artists: Elizabeth Beecham (Lead), Melanie Kidd
References: Jessie Dunlap and Helen Sawyer Hogg

ADVOCACY
A tribute to Mary Ann Shadd Cary, June Callwood, Allison Dore, and Lilly Saini Singh
Collaborative panel created by participants, Glasstronomy Studios, 2019

Mary Ann Shadd Cary, was an American-Canadian anti-slavery activist, journalist, lawyer, publisher, and teacher. She was the first Black female publisher in North America and the first female publisher in Canada. Her newspaper, The Provincial Freeman, was circulated on both sides of the border. Born to free parents who helped slaves escape the US via the Underground Railroad, Mary Ann advocated immigration to Canada.

June Callwood, was a journalist, writer, and social justice activist. She helped found over 50 organizations, including youth and women’s shelters, Casey House, PEN Canada, and the Canadian Civil Liberties Association.

Allison Dore is the founder of Howl & Roar, a female-centric comedy record label aimed at empowering artists and facilitating content for women and underrepresented performers in comedy.

Lilly Singh is a motivational speaker, performer, YouTube comedian and vlogger. From female empowerment to anti-bullying initiatives, Lilly’s wide reaching influence is effecting change.

This four-panel mosaic piece features portraits of each person and the word A D V O C A C Y. The portraits are pixelated and appear distorted depending on how far you stand away from them.

Concept and design: Elizabeth Beecham
Artists: Mary Arcand, Elizabeth Beecham (Lead), Marty Brent, Susan Cheung, Valerie Clarke, Melanie Kidd, Ona McDonald, Ferne Shulman, Valerie Singh, William Zhou
References: Mary Ann Shadd Cary, June Callwood, Allison Dore, and Lilly Saini Singh

FAIR PLAY
A tribute to Fannie “Bobbie” Rosenfeld, Ada Charlotte Mackenzie, Angela James, and Laura Fortino
Collaborative panel created by participants, Glasstronomy Studios, 2019

Bobbie Rosenfeld, was named Canada’s female athlete of the half-century (1900–1950). She won two medals at the 1928 Summer Olympics and excelled at basketball, ice hockey, softball, and tennis.

In 1924, Ada Mackenzie fulfilled a dream to create the Ladies’ Golf Club of Toronto. A champion golfer, Ada couldn’t get access to weekend tee time and practice opportunities. With backers’ money and a stellar golf architect on board, Ada purchased the farm land and got it done. At North America’s only active private golf club established by women for women, men are welcome too.

One of the first two women to be inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame, Angela James overcame many obstacles to pioneer women’s hockey. She first played organized hockey in a boys’ house league but only after her mother threatened legal action to include her. She led the league in scoring, but her right to play ended when the league’s President instigated an official policy to ban girls. A versatile star in the sport, Angela won four Women’s World Championship gold medals for Canada but was denied the opportunity to play at the Olympics.

Laura Fortino has been a player on Canada’s national women’s hockey team since 2008, earning an Olympic gold medal at the Sochi Winter Games in 2014, and a silver medal at the PyeongChang Winter Games in 2018. Laura is a defense player for the Markham Thunder who were 2018 CWHL champions and winners of the Clarkson Cup.

This fused glass piece depicts these athletes in winning form. The Canadian flag has been cast in the background.

Concept and design: Elizabeth Beecham
Kiln technician: Melanie Kidd
Artist: Elizabeth Beecham
References: Fannie “Bobbie” Rosenfeld, Ada Charlotte Mackenzie, Angela James, Laura Fortino

MAUD
A tribute to Lucy Maud Montgomery
Collaborative panel created by participants, Glasstronomy Studios, 2019

Lucy (Maud) Montgomery is a national literary treasure. A prolific writer of poetry and fictional stories set in her home province of Prince Edward Island, few of us know that Maud married a Presbyterian minister and settled near here in Leaskdale, Ontario. Like many of us today, she struggled with work-life balance while battling mental illness.

Open the outer leaded window to see a fused glass panel featuring Maud writing in her journal in the company of her cat Daffy.

Concept and design: Elizabeth Beecham
Kiln technician: Melanie Kidd
Artists: Elizabeth Beecham (Lead), Sylvia Fantin, Melanie Kidd, Millean Kung, Ingrid Tanner
References: Lucy Maud Montgomery

POLIO
A tribute to Elsie Muriel Gregory MacGill and Hilda Macmorine
Collaborative panel created by participants, Glasstronomy Studios, 2019

Elsie MacGill was a polio survivor. Contracting polio before she graduated from the University of Toronto with a degree in electrical engineering, she was told she would spend the rest of her life in a wheelchair. Refusing to settle for that prognosis, she relearned how to walk with two metal canes. After she qualified as an aeronautical engineer, Elsie oversaw the Canadian production of the Hawker Hurricane fighter planes during the Second World War. She devoted time advocating women's rights and was appointed to the Royal Commission on the Status of Women in Canada.

Hilda Macmorine was a supervising technician at Connaught Medical Research Laboratories (now Sanofi Pasteur Canada). She was part of the Canadian research team that successfully cultivated the poliovirus in large quantities. Using what became known as the “Toronto Method”, the poliovirus was cultured in a synthetic solution of "Medium 199" and monkey kidney cells stored in large Povitsky bottles and incubated on a special rocking machine. That success led to the safe production of the Salk polio vaccine and the near eradication of polio worldwide.

This fused sextet shows Elsie MacGill and the aircraft that impacted the outcome of the Second World War, the poliovirus in various forms, and Hilda Macmorine supervising its production.

Concept and design: Elizabeth Beecham
Kiln technician: Melanie Kidd
Artists: Elizabeth Beecham (Lead), Mia Louie
References: Elsie Muriel Gregory MacGill and Hilda Macmorine

SEX ED 101: ON THE AIR
A tribute to Sue Johanson
Collaborative panel created by participants, Glasstronomy Studios, 2019

Sue Johanson is a noted sex educator and counsellor. Whether in the classroom, in print, or on the radio and television, her frank and humorous approach to discussing birth control, sexual health, and sexuality broke down social taboos, putting “sex” back into the lexicon of casual and meaningful conversation.

This tactile fused glass panel features gender symbols representing biological sex or sociological gender. These symbols branch out above a broadcasting mic with the “On the air” signage lit up to denote a live discussion. The Braille for “joy”, “love”, and “passion” has been embossed onto the surface.

Concept and design: Elizabeth Beecham
Kiln technician: Melanie Kidd
Artists: Mary Arcand, Elizabeth Beecham (Lead), Melanie Kidd, Mia Louie, Susanna Ng, Valerie Singh
References: Sue Johanson

SONG OF PRAISE
A tribute to Esther Ghan Firestone
Collaborative panel created by participants, Glasstronomy Studios, 2019

Esther Ghan Firestone was an accomplished operatic soprano, choral conductor, and music arranger. She was also the first female cantor in Canada and held positions at Toronto’s Beth-El Synagogue, Temple Emanu-El, and Congregation Habonim.

This copper foiled and leaded stained glass window weaves together the Star of David and the Hebrew word Tehillah (תְּהִלָּה) that means “song of praise”.

Concept: Elizabeth Beecham
Design: Melanie Kidd
Artists: Mary Arcand, Melanie Kidd, Mia Louie, Vanessa Orr (Lead), Ferne Shulman, Lucia Thon
References: Esther Ghan Firestone

SPIRITS OF TRUTH
A tribute to Ursula Martius Franklin, Cecilia Krieger, Katie Rice, Amanda Strong, Olivine Bousquet-Tiedema, and Beatrice Helen Worsley
Collaborative panel created by participants, Glasstronomy Studios, 2019

Ursula Franklin was a noted metallurgist and physicist, as well as a pacifist and feminist. She spoke out against war and the social effects of science and technology.

Cecilia Krieger was the first woman in Canada to earn a PhD in mathematics. While she was a strong supporter of women in mathematics, her generation faced barriers working at the University of Toronto after they married and few were promoted. Cecilia remained a dedicated instructor and researcher without ever receiving a professorship.

Katie Rice studied astronomy, mathematics, and physics at the University of Toronto. Moving to Alberta, and then Saskatchewan to teach, she changed careers and turned to homesteading. As women were not yet considered legal persons, she enlisted her brother to purchase property in Manitoba. While farming, she heard of gold finds in the region. She learned about prospecting and geology and started staking claims. With the assistance of Cree guides who taught her their language and hunting and survival skills, she found zinc, copper, and nickel deposits.

Amanda Strong is an innovative Michif stop-action filmmaker and major contributor to indigenous cinema. Her films have brought oral tradition to life. Whether exploring dark chapters in Canadian history or spotlighting environmental issues, her work finds truth in its telling.

Olivine Bousquet-Tiedema was Amanda Strong’s grandmother. She in turn was granddaughter to Napoleon Bousquet a defender of Métis land rights and freedoms. An advocate of Métis culture, Olivine helped found the Métis Nation of Ontario (MNO) Toronto and York Region Métis Council, Oshawa-Durham Region Métis Council and Credit River Métis Council, and served as an MNO Senator.

Beatrice Worsley earned the first PhD in computer science and was the first female computer scientist in Canada. A pioneer in this field, she created an analogue computer from Meccano. She went on to co-develop Transcode, a computer markup language, for Canada’s first electronic computer at the University of Toronto.

This six-panel fused piece features each person and symbols associated with their truth.

Concept and design: Elizabeth Beecham
Kiln technician: Melanie Kidd
Artists: Elizabeth Beecham (Lead), Susan Cheung, Sylvia Fantin, Lella Dal Ferro, Millean Kung, Allison Li, Terri Mittelmann, Vanessa Orr, Ingrid Tanner, Lucia Thon, Yifei Wang, Eliza Yip, William Zhou
References: Ursula Martius Franklin, Cecilia Krieger, Katie Rice, Amanda Strong, Olivine Bousquet-Tiedema, and Beatrice Helen Worsley

THE AVIATORS
A tribute to Violet Milstead Warren and Molly Fenton Beall Reilly
Collaborative panel created by participants, Glasstronomy Studios, 2019

Violet Milstead Warren was one of four female Canadians to fly in the Air Transportation Auxiliary (ATA) during the Second World War, and was its longest serving Canadian female pilot. She ferried aircraft between factories and military zones. Upon discharge from the ATA, she worked as a flight instructor and became Canada’s first female bush pilot.

Molly Fenton Beall Reilly was taking flying lessons when the outbreak of war grounded civilians. She tried enlisting in the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) to complete her pilot certification, but was rejected due to her gender. The ATA accepted women, but Molly couldn't join without a pilot's license. Determined to find a job that involved flying, she enlisted with the RCAF as a photographer in the new Women's Division. She continued working as a non-commissioned officer for the RCAF until after the war. After she was finally able to earn her private pilot's license she obtained her commercial flight license and public transport license. She became a charter pilot for Southern Provincial Airlines. She was the first woman to fly professionally to the Arctic, and assisted in the development of the airline’s air ambulance service. Molly later became chief pilot for Canadian Coachways and the first female corporate pilot in Canada. She logged over 10,000 flight hours as a pilot-in-command — without a single accident.

This copper foiled stained glass panel features an airborne float plane. A fused glass glyph combines the ATA and RCAF insignia.

Concept: Elizabeth Beecham
Design: Melanie Kidd
Artists: Mary Arcand, Elizabeth Beecham, Marty Brent, Melanie Kidd, Vanessa Orr (Lead), Ferne Shulman
References: Violet Milstead Warren and Molly Fenton Beall Reilly

THE LARK
A tribute to Eva Bullock and Annie Edlund
Collaborative panel created by participants, Glasstronomy Studios, 2019

In 1929, on a dare from their husbands, Eva Bullock and Annie Edlund embarked on the adventure of a lifetime. Armed with a map and no compass, the women mushed by dog sled from Edlund, Ontario, 1300 km south to Toronto, a feat that had never been accomplished in recorded history. Battling the elements, surviving bear and wolf encounters, they trekked through the wilderness stopping in small communities along the way. Often rescued or sheltered by strangers, they passed through remote First Nations territories and lumber camps. Their journey captured the attention of news outlets that reported their adventures as they headed towards Toronto. Escorted by police, they travelled down Yonge Street through Thornhill to Toronto. Thousands of people cheered their arrival at Toronto City Hall where they were greeted by the mayor.

Executed in copper foil overlay, this two-panel piece features Eva and Annie mushing with their six-dog team through the countryside and then arriving at Toronto City Hall to a cheering crowd.

Concept and design: Elizabeth Beecham
Artists: Elizabeth Beecham, Melanie Kidd, Vanessa Orr
References: Eva Bullock and Annie Edlund

Feedback: "I saw the Glassed Over Project on Sunday. It was really beautiful, colourful and clever, and a tribute to the women who were recognized. I am sure that my father would have been very proud and his mother amazed at the recognition. My family went to see it last week. My granddaughter is quite taken by the whole episode and has started doing some family research." L.H., Toronto

TRAILBLAZERS
A tribute to Lan Kwan Sum and Valerie Burke
Collaborative panel created by participants, Glasstronomy Studios, 2019

A pioneer in special needs education, Lan Kwan Sum devised creative methods for students to increase their academic and developmental abilities. Lan was a keen hiker and naturalist. On her death, she left a generous bequest to the Bruce Trail Conservancy which enabled them to purchase 18 acres of land to create the Lan Kwan Sum Nature Reserve, a habitat for indigenous trees and plant species.

While a councillor for the town of Markham, Valerie Burke helped bring the Butterflyway Project to the region. In conjunction with the David Suzuki Foundation, several reclaimed canoes were planted by the community and local school children. Thornhill Meadow was transformed by the Pomona Mills Park Conservationists and residents into an important pollinator meadow for monarch butterflies.

Landscapes have been rendered in fused glass to depict hikers enjoying the snow, and butterflies pollinating the meadow.

Concept: Elizabeth Beecham
Design: Susanna Ng
Kiln technician: Melanie Kidd
Artists: Elizabeth Beecham, Susanna Ng (Lead)
References: Lan Kwan Sum and Valerie Burke

Credits

Audio: Elizabeth Beecham, Sylvia Fantin, Lawrence Kolasa, Millean Kung, Susanna Ng, William Zhou

Catering: Mary Arcand (reception), Marty Brent (session 1), Elizabeth Beecham (session 1 and 2, reception), Susan Cheung (reception), Ethel Clarke (reception), Valerie Clarke (reception), Lella Dal Ferro (reception), Sylvia Fantin (session 2, reception), Millean Kung (reception), Mia Louie (reception), Terri Mittelmann (reception), Susanna Ng (reception), Ferne Shulman (reception), Valerie Singh (session 1), Ingrid Tanner (reception)

Exhibit signage: Marty Brent, Maureen Couse, Signarama Markham

Framing and bases: Marty Brent, Lella Dal Ferro, Elias Hadida, Melanie Kidd (Lead), Valerie Singh, Lucia Thon

Installation: Stewart Abram, Elizabeth Beecham, Shane Clodd, Markham Museum, Melanie Kidd (Lead), William Zhou

Markham Museum: Tammy Law (Communications), Cathy Molloy (Director), Janet Reid (Curator), and all the staff

Members: Mary Arcand, Marty Brent, Cheryl Broschell, Susan Cheung, Ethel Clarke, Valerie Clarke, Lella Dal Ferro, Sylvia Fantin, Jewell Lofsky, Mia Louie, Millean Kung, Ona McDonald, Terri Mittelmann, Susanna Ng, Vanessa Orr, Ferne Shulman, Valerie Singh, Ingrid Tanner, Lucia Thon

Photography: Mary Arcand, Elizabeth Beecham, Man Khun Chan, Melanie Kidd, Millean Kung, Mia Louie, Terri Mittelmann, Amarra Mohammed, Ingrid Tanner

Print promotion: Elizabeth Beecham, Susanna Ng

Research: Elizabeth Beecham (Lead), Lella Dal Ferro, Linda Hasler, Jewell Lofsky, Susanna Ng, Vanessa Orr, Chris Rutty, Gwynn Shum, Kok Kwan Shum, Ingrid Tanner

Student volunteers:
Middlefield Collegiate Institute: William Zhou
Unionville High School: Allison Li, Yifei Wang, Eliza Yip

Technical facilitators: Shane Clodd, Elias Hadida, Melanie Kidd

References

Ada Charlotte Mackenzie

Canadian Golf Hall of Fame (2000) | Ada Mackenzie. Retrieved from heritage.golfcanada.ca/hall-of-fame-members/ada-mackenzie/
Encyclopedia of World Biography (2004) | Mackenzie, Ada Charlotte. Retrieved from www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/mackenzie-ada-charlotte
Library and Archives Canada | Ada Mackenzie. Retrieved from www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/women/030001-1511-e.html
Rubenstein, L. (2008, March) | Ada Mackenzie. Retrieved from www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/ada-mackenzie

Allison Dore

Howl & Roar Records | About. Retrieved from howlandroarrecords.com/about
Occhi (2018, September) | Feature: Renowned SiriusXM Canada Radio Host Allison Dore Creates a Female-centric Record Label. Retrieved from occhimagazine.com/feature-radio-host-and-record-label-owner-allison-dore-creates-a-female-centric-record-label/
SHEDOESTHECITY (2018, August) | Her Career: Allison Dore, Founder, Howl & Roar Records, a Female-centric Comedy Record Label Debuting this September. Retrieved from www.shedoesthecity.com/career-allison-dore-founder-howl-roar-records-female-centric-comedy-record-label
TuneIn podcasts | Digging In With Allison Dore. Retrieved from tunein.com/podcasts/Culture/Digging-In-With-Allison-Dore-p1044536/

Amanda Strong

CBC shortDOCS | 1,000 Handmade Skulls: The Making of Four Faces of the Moon. Retrieved from www.cbc.ca/shortdocs/blog/four-faces-of-the-moon-director-amanda-strong-film
Collins, L. (2017, January) | This Indigenous Filmmaker is Being Championed by a Canadian Icon, and Here's Why. Retrieved from www.cbc.ca/arts/this-indigenous-filmmaker-is-being-championed-by-a-canadian-icon-and-here-s-why-1.3932477
vimeo.com | Spotted Fawn Productions. Retrieved from vimeo.com/spottedfawn
Wikipedia | Amanda Strong. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amanda_Strong

Angela James

Induction Showcase | Angela James – Player Category. Retrieved from www.hhof.com/htmlInduct/ind10James.shtml
Rutherford, K. | A Player Before Her Time. Retrieved from www.sportsnet.ca/hockey/nhl/isnt-wayne-gretzky-womens-hockey-better-known/
Sadler, E. (2019, February) | Black History Month: The Lasting Impact of Angela James. Retrieved from www.sportsnet.ca/hockey/nhl/black-history-month-lasting-impact-angela-james/
Wikipedia | Angela James. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angela_James

Annie Edlund

Bradbeer, J. (2016, November) | Once Upon A City: Northern Moms Inspire With Epic Dog Sled Journey. Retrieved from www.thestar.com/yourtoronto/once-upon-a-city-archives/2016/11/17/once-upon-a-city-northern-moms-inspire-with-epic-dog-sled-journey.html
Emotion in Pictures, Productions | Bullock and Edlund: Women Mushers. Retrieved from www.fullkiltpursuits.com/index.cfm?id=79850
Plummer, K. (2014, December) | Historicist: The Mushing Mothers’ Adventure. Retrieved from torontoist.com/2014/12/historicist-mushing-mothers-wild-journey
The Ogden Standard-Examiner (1929, May), p. 37 | How 2 Women Mushed 32 Days to Buy a $1.95 Easter Hat. Retrieved from www.newspapers.com/clip/1431998/the_ogden_standardexaminer/

Beatrice “Trixie” Helen Worsley

Haikara, N. | Honouring Canada's First Female Computer Scientist: U of T's Trixie Worsley. Retrieved from www.utoronto.ca/news/honouring-canadas-first-female-computer-scientist-u-ts-trixie-worsley/
Meccano Kinematics | Differential Analyzers. Retrieved from meccanokinematics.net/fac/models/15-differential-analyzers
Raymond, K. (2017, October) | Beatrice Worsley. Retrieved from www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/beatrice-worsley
Robertson, B.A. | The "Ferut" Memory Tube and Canada's First Woman Computer Scientist. Retrieved from www.activehistoryexhibits.ca/exhibits/show/science-technology-and-gender/the-ferut-and-canada-s-first
Wikipedia | Beatrice Worsley. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beatrice_Worsley
Wikipedia | Differential Analyser. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_analyser
Willoughby, E. (2018, July). Women in Tech: Beatrice "Trixie" Worsley (1921–1972). Retrieved from www.femmesofstem.com/blog/historical-femme-feature-worsley

Cecilia Krieger

Culture.pl (2016, March) | Sierpiński: Fractals, Code Breaking, and a Crater on the Moon. Retrieved from culture.pl/en/article/sierpinski-fractals-code-breaking-and-a-crater-on-the-moon
O’Connor, J.J. and Robertson, E.F. (2002, April) | Cypra Cecilia Krieger Dunaij. Retrieved from www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Krieger.html
Revolvy | Cecilia Krieger. Retrieved from www.revolvy.com/page/Cecilia-Krieger
Riddle, L. (2016, February) | Cecilia Krieger. Retrieved from www.agnesscott.edu/lriddle/women/krieger.htm
science.ca (2015) | Cecilia Krieger: Pure and Applied Mathematics. First Woman to Earn Doctorate in Mathematics from Canadian University. Retrieved from www.science.ca/scientists/scientistprofile.php?pID=28
Wikipedia | Cecilia Krieger. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cecilia_Krieger
Zuschlag, A. (2017) | Cecilia Krieger. Retrieved from www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/cecilia-krieger

Elsie Muriel MacGill

Government of Canada | Elsie Initiative for Women in Peace Operations. Retrieved from international.gc.ca/world-monde/issues_development-enjeux_developpement/gender_equality-egalite_des_genres/elsie_initiative-initiative_elsie.aspx?lang=eng
Hume, S. (2017, April) | Canada 150: Aeronautical Engineer Helped Win Battle of Britain. Retrieved from vancouversun.com/news/local-news/canada-150/canada-150-aeronautical-engineer-helped-win-battle-of-britain
Katie@goldstreamgazette.com (2017, April) | Canadian Women Making History: A Life of Firsts in Flying Colour | Elsie MacGill (1905–1980) The World’s First Female Aircraft Designer. Retrieved from www.goldstreamgazette.com/business/canadian-women-making-history-a-life-of-firsts-in-flying-colour/
Library and Archives Canada (2000, October) | Elizabeth Muriel Gregory MacGill. Retrieved from www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/women/030001-1409-e.html
Parks Canada (2007, June) | MacGill, Elizabeth Muriel Gregory ‘Elsie’ National Historic Person. Retrieved from www.pc.gc.ca/apps/dfhd/page_nhs_eng.aspx?id=11471
Sissons, C. (2017, December) | Elsie MacGill. Retrieved from www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/elizabeth-muriel-gregory-macgill
Wikipedia | Elsie MacGill. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elsie_MacGill
Glorfeld, J. (2018, March) | This Week in Science History: The World's First Female Aircraft Engineer is Born. Retrieved from cosmosmagazine.com/technology/this-week-in-science-history-the-world-s-first-female-aircraft-engineer-is-born
The Roberta Bondar Foundation | A Hurricane Force. Retrieved from www.therobertabondarfoundation.org/on-this-day-march_27

Esther Ghan Firestone

Fitterman, L. (2015, June) | Esther Ghan Firestone: Canada's First Female Cantor Delighted Audiences With Her Voice. Retrieved from www.theglobeandmail.com/arts/esther-ghan-firestone-canadas-first-female-cantor-delighted-audiences-with-her-voice/article24867420/">
Rubenstein, E. (2015, May) | Eulogy for Esther Ghan Firestone, Habonim Cantor Emeritus. Retrieved from www.congregationhabonim.org/eulogy-for-esther-ghan-firestone
The Canadian Encyclopedia (2007, May) | Esther Ghan Firestone. Retrieved from www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/esther-ghan-emc
Wikipedia | Esther Ghan Firestone. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esther_Ghan_Firestone

Eva Bullock

Bradbeer, J. (2016, November) | Once Upon A City: Northern Moms Inspire With Epic Dog Sled Journey. Retrieved from www.thestar.com/yourtoronto/once-upon-a-city-archives/2016/11/17/once-upon-a-city-northern-moms-inspire-with-epic-dog-sled-journey.html
Emotion in Pictures, Productions | Bullock and Edlund: Women Mushers. Retrieved from www.fullkiltpursuits.com/index.cfm?id=79850
Plummer, K. (2014, December) | Historicist: The Mushing Mothers’ Adventure. Retrieved from torontoist.com/2014/12/historicist-mushing-mothers-wild-journey
The Ogden Standard-Examiner (1929, May), p. 37 | How 2 Women Mushed 32 Days to Buy a $1.95 Easter Hat. Retrieved from www.newspapers.com/clip/1431998/the_ogden_standardexaminer/

Fannie "Bobbie" Rosenfeld

Canadian Olympic Team Official Website | Fanny "Bobbie" Rosenfeld. Retrieved from olympic.ca/team-canada/fanny-rosenfeld/
Historica Canada | Bobbie Rosenfeld. Retrieved from www.historicacanada.ca/content/heritage-minutes/bobbie-rosenfeld
Jewish Virtual Library | Bobbie Rosenfeld (1904–1969). Retrieved from www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/bobbie-rosenfeld
Marshall, T. (2018, December) | Bobbie Rosenfeld Award. Retrieved from www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/bobbie-rosenfeld-award
Wikipedia | Bobbie Rosenfeld. Retrieved from en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bobbie_Rosenfeld
Wikipedia | Bobbie Rosenfeld Award. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bobbie_Rosenfeld_Award

Helen Sawyer Hogg

Broughton, P. (1994) | Helen Hogg. Retrieved from www.rasc.ca/helen-hogg
Clement, C. (1993, December). The Stars Are In Her Eyes. Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?v=aJkryE_p-DM
Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics at U of T | Helen Sawyer Hogg (1905–1993). Retrieved from www.astro.utoronto.ca/about/history/helen-sawyer-hogg
Encyclopaedia Britannica, Editors (2019, January) | Helen Battles Sawyer Hogg-Priestly. Retrieved from www.britannica.com/biography/Helen-Battles-Sawyer-Hogg-Priestly
virtualmuseum.ca | Helen Sawyer Hogg (1905–1993). Retrieved from astro-canada.ca/helen_sawyer_hogg-eng
Wikipedia | Helen Sawyer Hogg. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helen_Sawyer_Hogg
Wilcox, M. (2017, December) | Helen Sawyer Hogg. Retrieved from www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/helen-sawyer-hogg

Hilda Macmorine

Facebook (2014, January) | Hilda Macmorine Supervising Technicians Salk Polio Vaccine Production, 1953–54. Retrieved from www.facebook.com/SanofiPasteurCanada100/photos/hilda-macmorine-supervising-technicians-salk-polio-vaccine-production-1953-54/641228649256561
Lethbridge Herald Newspaper Archives (1966, April) | Female Researcher Talks: Tells of Life and Home. Retrieved from newspaperarchive.com/lethbridge-herald-apr-20-1966-p-22/
Rutty, C.J. | Connaught Labs, Polio Research & Conquering "The Crippler". Retrieved from connaught.research.utoronto.ca/history/article7/

Jessie Donalda Bell Dunlap

Briggs, E. (2012, October) | David Dunlap's 150th Birthday. Retrieved from rasc.ca/rascblog/david-dunlaps-150th-birthday
Chant, C.A. (1946, September) | The Death of Mrs. Dunlap. Retrieved from adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1946JRASC..40..245C
Dunlap Institute for Astronomy & Astrophysics at U of T | The Dunlap and Canada 150. Retrieved from www.dunlap.utoronto.ca/about/the-dunlap-and-canada-150
Kuitenbrouwer, P. (2008, January) | Donor Dilemma: Benefactors, Universities Scrap Over Issues of Intent. Retrieved from www.pressreader.com/canada/national-post-latest-edition/20080107
Rizza, A. (2018, August) | Canada's Largest Telescope Housed at Richmond Hill's David Dunlap Observatory. Retrieved from www.ctvnews.ca/sci-tech/canada-s-largest-telescope-housed-at-richmond-hill-s-david-dunlap-observatory-1.4060035

June Callwood

Casey House | June Callwood. Retrieved from www.caseyhouse.com/about-casey-house/our-history/june-callwood/
Pedersen, A.-M. (2007, September) | June Callwood. Retrieved from www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/june-callwood
Wikipedia I June Callwood. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_Callwood
Library and Archives Canada | June Callwood. Retrieved from www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/women/030001-1104-e.html

Kathleen McKay

Experience York Region | The McKay Story. Retrieved from www.experienceyorkregion.com/the-mckay-art-centre
Hosseini-Ara, M. (2014, March) | Strategic Planning for Varley Art Gallery – Update. Retrieved from www2.markham.ca/markham/ccbs/indexfile/Agendas/2014/General/gc140428/Varley%20Report.pdf
Parks Canada (2010, January) | Eckhardt-McKay House. Retrieved from www.historicplaces.ca/en/rep-reg/place-lieu.aspx?id=15234
Ross, V. (2007, August) | The Many Faces of Frederick Varley. Retrieved from www.theglobeandmail.com/arts/the-many-faces-of-frederick-varley/article691653/

Katie Rice

Goldsborough, G. (2017, July) | Kathleen "Kate" Rice (1883–1964). Retrieved from www.mhs.mb.ca/docs/people/rice_k.shtml
Purdy, C. (2014, January) | Not Crazy Just a Female Prospector: Kate Rice Honoured for Mining First. Retrieved from www.macleans.ca/general/not-crazy-just-a-female-prospector-
Purdy, C. (2014, January) | Pioneering Manitoba Woman to Enter Mining Hall of Fame. Retrieved globalnews.ca/news/1083500/pioneering-manitoba-woman-to-enter-mining-hall-of-fame/
Wikipedia | Kate Rice. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kate_Rice

Lan Kwan Sum

brucetrail.org 2016 AGM CEO Presentation (2016) | Lan Kwan Sum Nature Reserve at Rockside Toronto. Retrieved from brucetrail.org/system/downloads/0000/1008/2016_AGM_CEO_Presentation.pdf
Legacy.com (2014, November) | Ms. Lan Kwan Sum. Retrieved from www.legacy.com/obituaries/name/lan-sum-obituary?pid=173325921&page=3

Laura Fortino

Canadian Olympic Team Official Website | Laura Fortino. Retrieved from olympic.ca/team-canada/laura-fortino/
Wikipedia | Laura Fortino. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laura_Fortino
Wikipedia | Markham Thunder. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Markham_Thunder

Lilly Saini Singh

Baggs, M. (2019, February) | Lilly Singh: Why the YouTuber Coming Out as Bisexual is ‘Worth Celebrating’. Retrieved from www.bbc.com/news/newsbeat-47362622
Biography.com Editors (2017, December) | Lilly Singh Biography. Retrieved from www.biography.com/people/lilly-singh-121417
Christoffersson, H., Sahlberg, D. | In Conversation With Lilly Singh. Retrieved from www.we.org/stories/youtube-megastar-lilly-singh-aka-superwoman-talks-girllove-family-and-giving-back
Wikipedia | Lilly Singh. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lilly_Singh

Lucy Maud Montgomery

Bradley, B. (2018, March) | Author Lucy Maud Montgomery's Troubled Years in Toronto. Retrieved from www.thestar.com/yourtoronto/once-upon-a-city-archives/2018/03/01/author-lucy-maud-montgomerys-troubled-years-in-toronto.html
Heritage Minutes (2018, March) | Lucy Maud Montgomery. Retrieved from www.historicacanada.ca/content/heritage-minutes/lucy-maud-montgomery
L.M. Montgomery Institute | About L.M. Montgomery. Retrieved from www.lmmontgomery.ca/about/lmm/her-life
McIntosh, A. and Devereux, C. (2013, January) | Lucy Maud Montgomery. Retrieved from www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/montgomery-lucy-maud
Wikipedia | Lucy Maud Montgomery. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucy_Maud_Montgomery

Mary Ann Shadd Cary

Biography.com Editors (2014, April) | Mary Ann Shadd Cary Biography. Retrieved from www.biography.com/people/mary-ann-shadd-cary-214141
Heritage Minutes (2015, May) | Mary Ann Shadd. Retrieved from www.historicacanada.ca/content/heritage-minutes/mary-ann-shadd
Heritage Toronto, Kaitlin (2016, March) | Mary Ann Shadd Cary. Retrieved from heritagetoronto.org/mary-ann-shadd-cary
math.buffalo.edu | The Provincial Freeman. Retrieved from www.math.buffalo.edu/~sww/0history/ProvincialFreeman.html
Specia, M. (2018, June) | Overlooked No More: How Mary Ann Shadd Cary Shook Up the Abolitionist Movement. Retrieved from www.nytimes.com/2018/06/06/obituaries/mary-ann-shadd-cary-abolitionist-overlooked.html
Wikipedia | Mary Ann Shadd. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Ann_Shadd
Yarhi, E. (2013, November) | Mary Ann Shadd. Retrieved from www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/mary-ann-shadd

Molly Fenton Beall Reilly

Canada’s Aviation Hall of Fame (1974) | Moretta Fenton Beall Reilly. Retrieved from www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/eppp-archive/100/200/301/ic/can_digital_collections/aviation/m056.htm
revolvy.com (2017, November) | Molly Reilly. Retrieved from www.revolvy.com/page/Molly-Reilly
Wikipedia | Molly Reilly. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molly_Reilly
Wikipedia | Yukon Territory Order of Polaris. Retrieved from ipfs.io/ipfs/QmXoypizjW3WknFiJnKLwHCnL72vedxjQkDDP1mXWo6uco/wiki/Yukon_Territory_Order_of_Polaris.html

Olivine Bousquet-Tiedema

Barkwell, L.J. (2014, September) | Tiedema (Bousquet), Olivine. Retrieved from www.metismuseum.ca/resource.php/15029
Kearns, L.L. (2013, January) | (Re)claiming Métis Women Identities: Three Stories and the Storyteller. Retrieved from www.researchgate.net/publication/297372576_Reclaiming_metis_women_identities_Three_stories_and_the_storyteller
Métis Nation of Ontario (2018, April) | Honourary MNO Senator Olivine Tiedema Passes. Retrieved from www.metisnation.org/news-media/news/olivinetiedema
pmnationtalk (2018, April) | Honourary MNO Senator Olivine Tiedema Passes. Retrieved from nationtalk.ca/story/honourary-mno-senator-olivine-tiedema-passes

Sue Johanson

Deziel, S. and George, L. (2004, June) | Sue Johanson (Profile). Retrieved from www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/sue-johanson-profile
Fowles, S.M. (2017, October) | In Defence of Hot Stuff: The Life and Times of Sue Johanson. Retrieved from passport2017.ca/articles/hot-stuff-sue-johanson
Wikipedia | Sue Johanson. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sue_Johanson

Ursula Martius Franklin

Perovic, D. (2016, November) | Remembering Professor Emerita Ursula M. Franklin (1921–2016). Retrieved from mse.utoronto.ca/news/remembering-professor-emerita-ursula-m-franklin-1921-2016/
Raymond, K. (2007, December) | Ursula Franklin. Retrieved from www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/ursula-franklin
Valpy, M. (2016, July) | Ursula Franklin Was Renowned for Her Devotion to Science, Pacifism and Education. Retrieved from www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/ursula-franklin-canadian-scientist-and-activist-had-a-passion-for-peace/article31123033/
Wikipedia | Ursula Franklin. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ursula_Franklin

Valerie Burke

David Suzuki Foundation | Markham Butterflyway. Retrieved from davidsuzuki.org/take-action/act-locally/butterflyway/markham/
earthroots.org | Progressive Plan for a Markham Foodbelt Proposed by Councilors. Retrieved from earthroots.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=190:progressive-plan-for-a-markham-foodbelt-proposed-by-councilors&catid=1:latest&Itemid=121
Ervin, M. (2014, April) | Markham Adopts Bird-friendly Building Rules. Retrieved from www.reminetwork.com/articles/markham-adopts-bird-friendly-building-rules
Finney, L. (2015, June) | Concerns Voiced in Markham Over Land Preservation Law Review. Retrieved from www.bramptonguardian.com/news-story/5661194-concerns-voiced-in-markham-over-land-preservation-law-review
Gombu, P. (2010, January) | Markham Plan Could Contain Sprawl, Save Farms. Retrieved from www.thestar.com/news/gta/2010/01/09/markham_plan_could_contain_sprawl_save_farms.html

Violet Milstead Warren

Adams, D. (2014, July) | Vi Milstead Warren Blazed a Trail for Other Female Aviators. Retrieved from www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/vi-milstead-warren-blazed-a-trail-for-other-female-aviators/article19865152/
McLeod, B. (1948, March) | Bush Angel. Retrieved from archive.macleans.ca/article/1948/3/1/bush-angel
McLeod, S. (2014, October) | ‘Even Girls Can Learn to Fly‘. Retrieved from www.thewhig.com/2014/10/28/even-girls-can-learn-to-fly/wcm/dffec753-79ec-bae5-8de7-56a1dd4fdc59
Scally, S. (2017, September) | Heritage Cramahe Moment: The Vi Milstead Story. Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?v=U_PUceMr_BU
vitacollections.ca | Vi Milstead Warren: WWII Aviator. Retrieved from vitacollections.ca/cramahelibrary/347/Exhibit/4
Wikipedia | Violet Milstead. Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Violet_Milstead

What’s In a Name?

Why The Glassed Over Project? It was once commonplace to overlook the accomplishments of academic women, a sector where their achievements were glossed over and male colleagues given credit for their research. As women, we have only been deemed persons in Canada since 1929, before which, the right to make decisions for our bodies, the right to own property, the right to work while married, the right to be acknowledged and promoted were all in the control of our male relatives, employers, and government. Times have changed and so has perspective. And if that doesn’t intrigue you, your eyes will have probably glassed over by now. ;^)